Key activities could include 5 , 11 , 36 , 37 : assessing the inclusion of genomics information in the collection, management, and analysis of routine data working with national surveys and large epidemiology groups to maximize potential from databases exploring the potential for disease-specific, and population-based, registries to be used to conduct disease surveillance.
Diagnose and investigate health problems and hazards in the community Identify and track infectious disease outbreaks using genomic technology This involves utilizing genomic technology to improve the speed and efficiency of infectious disease surveillance and response 17 — Assist with the redesign of diagnostic and laboratory services to incorporate new genome-based technologies Examples of these technologies include massively parallel sequencing such as whole exome and whole genome sequencing There is potential for the incorporation of these technologies into diagnostic and laboratory services that can improve the diagnostic yield from genetic testing.
Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues Improve the genomic literacy of the public 22 , 31 , This involves providing education materials to communities that teaches them about genetics and genomics in understandable language 37 , 39 — Empower all stakeholders, including health professionals and the public, to make informed decisions about the uses of genetic information with realistic expectations about the risks and benefits This includes the provision of relevant information on the uses of genomic information in disease prevention 22 , 31 , as well as on the associated ethical, legal and social issues.
Facilitate the integration of genomics into health promotion and disease prevention programs This will contribute to informing and educating people about genomics knowledge and technologies, as well as its limitations. Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems Foster collaborations between stakeholders This encompasses capacity building, and developing networks and partnerships between diverse stakeholders including public policy makers, patients, the general public, academia, clinicians, researchers, and industry Develop policies and plans that support individual and community health efforts Policies and plans that could be developed include those relating to: the appropriate use of genomic applications 33 , 37 , through standards and guidelines that recognize the complexity of genomics and define when and how genome-based information and technologies should be used to promote health and prevent disease 31 , 34 , 44 , including in the clinical setting 36 , 45 , 46 equity and accessibility , to assure genomics knowledge and technologies are accessible across all segments of the population 20 , 37 the use of family health history information to inform people of the role of inheritance in the development of disease and identify people at risk of disease 26 , 37 reproductive decision-making , including prenatal screening, population-based carrier screening and pre-implantation genetic diagnosis Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety Contribute to: laws and regulations for genomic applications Link people to needed health services and assure provision Support the appropriate integration of genomic knowledge and technologies into all aspects of healthcare and public health 26 , 41 , This may be operationalized in a number of ways, such as: supporting the implementation of evidence-based genomic applications and discouraging the use of unvalidated applications 32 , to prevent the premature use, misuse and overuse of genomic applications Assure a competent public and personal healthcare workforce Contribute to training and education in, and development of, genomic knowledge, skills and capacity for health professionals 31 , 43 , 45 , This is so that: genomics is appropriately integrated into their work; they can effectively communicate genetic information; and they can support informed decision-making by patients Support the development of workforce capacity in genomics-related fields.
These fields include bioinformatics, genetic epidemiology, law and ethics, and health economics as applied to genetics and genomics 16 , 38 , 52 , Evaluate the effectiveness, accessibility and quality of health services Evaluate new genome-based knowledge and technologies to determine their evidence base, quality, appropriateness and readiness for implementation in healthcare and public health practice. The need for evaluation is based on concerns that the availability of genome-based tools and technologies, such as genetic tests, diagnostic equipment and therapies, are being driven more by technical feasibility and commercial potential than by evidence-based implementation.
Such evaluations ensure that the benefits of genomic discoveries are realized efficiently, effectively and equitably, and are only implemented when it is in the public's best interest 2 , 5 , 27 , 29 , 31 , 32 , 42 , 45 , Evaluate the use of genome-based knowledge and technologies in healthcare and public health practice 11 , Examples of evaluations include: the current use of genetic tests and services; the factors that influence utilization; cost-effectiveness; and the impact on service, intervention and patient outcomes 11 , 20 , 31 , 36 , Research for new insights and innovative solutions to health problems Monitor the results of human genome epidemiology studies This provides a population perspective on gene-disease associations, estimating the contribution of gene variants to the occurrence of disease in groups and the population overall 31 , 37 , 44 , Monitoring these studies can help identify gaps in knowledge at the population level 11 and could lead to changes in public health prevention interventions and disease management 14 , Support the development of infrastructure for conducting genomic-related population research.
Patient registries, population data sets and linked biobanks are key resources enabling the conduct of large population studies to assess gene-environment interactions However, steps must be taken to ensure that databases reflect genomic reference ranges for the whole population, inclusive of minority groups, to avoid inequity of the applications of genomic technology and knowledge Conduct and monitor translation research 20 , The aim of translation research is to move appropriate genomic technologies from the discovery phase to application in healthcare and public health practice, and to evaluate its use in practice for improving health outcomes 11 , 58 , Open in a separate window.
Precision public health: the future The integration of genomic knowledge and technologies into healthcare is revolutionizing the way we approach clinical and public health practice. Conclusion Public health genomics has been successfully integrated into existing paradigms for the provision of traditional public health services. Author contributions All authors contributed substantially to the conception of the work and have given final approval for the manuscript to be published.
Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Emily Coles for providing valuable feedback and constructive criticism in the development of this paper. Glossary Determinants of health All the factors that determine health and wellbeing outcomes, including the presence or absence of disease.
DNA sequence The linear order of the four bases of DNA, that is, the nucleotides called adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Epidemiology The study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease in populations. Gene A defined unit of DNA made up of a DNA sequence that is inherited and provides instructions that determine characteristics of offspring. Gene expression The process by which information from a gene is converted into instructions that are used to create a functional gene product e.
Genetic variant A difference in the DNA sequence that makes up a gene. Genetic variations are what make each person unique. Genetics The science of inheritance, which generally focuses on one gene at a time. Genome All the genes within an organism. Genomics The study of the genome, how all the genes in the genome function and are expressed, and how they interact with each other and the environment to affect an organism's growth and development.
Genomics knowledge Facts and information that are acquired through the study of the genome. Genomics technology The collection of techniques, tools, methods, processes and tests that are developed based on knowledge of the genome. Genotype The full set of an organism's genetic variants that make up their unique personal genome. Health disparities Differences in the health status of different groups of people, including differences in the incidence and mortality of specific diseases. Human genome epidemiology The application of epidemiology approaches to understanding the impact of the human genome on patterns, causes and effects of health and disease in populations.
This involves exploring the role of the genome and its interaction with environmental factors to contribute to health and disease. Incidence The number of new cases of a disease in a population within a given time period. Interventions Activities that aim to reduce risks or threats to health. Massively parallel sequencing An approach to DNA sequencing the process of establishing the exact order of nucleotides within a sample of DNA , which is used to test for and diagnose genetic disorders.
Morbidity The existence of a disease and the degree to which it affects a person, which can be measured by the incidence of ill health in the population. Mortality The number of deaths within a population. Pharmacogenetics The study of how variation in a single gene influences a person's response to a drug. Pharmacogenomics The study of how the full set of a person's genes genome affects their response to a drug. Phenotype The observable characteristics or traits of an organism, which is influenced by both genotype and the environment. Precision public health The application and combination of new and existing technologies, which more precisely describe and analyse individuals and their environment over the life course, in order to tailor preventive interventions for at-risk groups and improve the overall health of a population.
Prevalence The number of people in a population who are alive with a disease during a period of time period prevalence or at a particular date in time point prevalence. Footnotes Funding. References 1. Awofeso N. The impact of genomics on public health practice. Br Med Bull. Institute of Medicine. The Future of Public Health. World Health Organization. Geneva: WHO; Public health genomics: the interface with public health intelligence and the role of public health observatories.
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Identify and track infectious disease outbreaks using genomic technology This involves utilizing genomic technology to improve the speed and efficiency of infectious disease surveillance and response 17 — Inform, educate, and empower people about health issues.
Improve the genomic literacy of the public 22 , 31 , Mobilize community partnerships to identify and solve health problems. This tool calculates the glomerular filtration rate in mice using the FITC-inulin method. Utilizing genomic approaches to interrogate mechanisms of inherited cardiovascular disorders. Integrating multi-track Hi-C data for genome-scale reconstruction of 3D chromatin structure. ATAC-seq is a new protocol to capture open chromatin sites by performing adaptor ligation and fragmentation of open chromatin regions.
Due to its efficiency in requirement of biological sample and in library preparation time, many scientists are generating ATAC-seq libraries to decipher the chromatin landscape of DNA in a given cell type and condition of interest. Scientists around the world are working to generate a targeted knockout mutation for every gene in the mouse genome through the Knockout Mouse Project KOMP which is providing critical tools for understanding gene function and the genetic causes of human diseases. MAV-seq Management, Analysis, Visualization of Sequence data is an interactive, user friendly, cross platform, secure, encrypted, automated, customized, centralized, multi-roles based database application for the management of sample repertoires and automation of the data pre-processing of epigenomic and transcriptomic data.
The Mouse Models of Human Cancer Database formerly, the Mouse Tumor Biology database integrates data on the frequency, incidence, genetics, and pathology of neoplastic disorders, emphasizing data on tumors that develop characteristically in different genetically defined strains of mice. Mice harboring spontaneous mutations have long been a major source for animal models of human genetic disorders, particularly mendelian diseases.
The Mouse Mutant Resource maintains over established mutant strains. This resource provides mouse models for facial, dental, eye, ear and skull development research, as well as mouse models of human craniofacial syndromes. The SMSR maintains mice that are important tools for genetic analysis of complex diseases, including consomic strains.
Renowned Geneticist to Lead Center for Human Genetics & Genomics at NYU Langone | NYU Langone News
What is Personalized Medicine? Genetics vs. Why Mice? Genetic Tools Genetics used to mean single-gene research. JAX Strain Donation. It's where the mice are. Donate yours. Learn More. Related Services Genome Scanning Service. Education Resources Oct Cre Portal The Cre Portal contains curated data about all recombinase-containing transgenes and knock-ins developed in mice to provide a comprehensive resource delineating known recombinase activity patterns and allowing users to find relevant mouse resources for their studies.
David E. Bergstrom, Ph. Research Scientist. Digital Pathology Pipeline Tools for automatic glomerulus identification and histological quantification from scanned PAS slides. Eye Mutant Resource Describes mouse models for ocular research available at The Jackson Laboratory and provides a list of known mouse mutations that affect vision.
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