The guidelines include five modules to assess the needs in i food control management; ii food legislation; iii food inspection; iv official food control laboratories; and v food safety and quality information, education and communication. Each module sets out a stepbystep process to examine critically existing capacity and performance, consider the desired future improved situation, pinpoint capacity building needs and identify options to address them. Internationally accepted benchmarks for an effective national food control system are incorporated, as well as practical tools and suggestions to support the needs assessment process.
Publisher's description. System requirements: Adobe Acrobat Reader Mode of access: Internet via the World Wide Web Title from title screen viewed June 12, "Written by Marlynne Hopper and Ezzeddine Boutrif"--Page ix Includes bibliographical references page Capacity building and the process of assessing needs -- Modules to assess capacity building needs in the core components of a national food control system -- Tools and techniques Electronic reproduction s.
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The United States is supporting those who seek greater freedom, prosperity and dignity in Burma. We are committed to shaping a more livable world. Our mission is to provide you with the best job opportunities in Myanmar, including jobs in Yangon, jobs in Mandalay or jobs in Naypyitaw, or even jobs and careers anywhere in Myanmar. Reduction or elimination of overlap of functions, duplication of efforts, delays, increased cost of doing business and wastage. Increased ability to respond quickly to emerging challenges e. Food control systems serve the primary purpose of ensuring food safety and protection of the health of consumers although there are other important objectives such as ensuring fair practices in trade, facilitating food export trade, developing the food sector to operate in a professional and scientific manner and economic benefits.
The systems that specifically deal with these objectives can be sectoral i. It could be mandatory or voluntary. It is put in effect through a general food law or a sectoral regulation. For example, an export inspection law that requires certain foods to be mandatorily inspected before export; regulated systems for grading and marking fresh agricultural produce which are sold directly to the consumer; specific commodity inspection regulations such as for milk and milk products, fats and oils, meat and meat products etc.
Sectoral initiatives may give rise to separate food control activities which leads to the creation of multiple agencies with responsibilities for food control. In this type of system, the food control responsibilities are usually shared between government ministries such as Health, Agriculture, Commerce, Environment, Trade, Industry and Tourism and government agencies such as the National Food Control Body or the Food Standards Body. The enabling laws specify the roles and responsibilities of the relevant government bodies which are different but sometimes overlap.
This gives rise to challenges such as fragmentation, increased bureaucracy, increased cost of doing business, duplication of functions and lack of co-ordination between the various bodies with roles to play all along the farm to table continuum. Food control systems may also be fragmented between national, state and local government bodies and the thoroughness of implementation depends on the competence and efficiency of the agency responsible at each level.
Therefore consumers may not receive the same level of protection throughout the country and it may be difficult to properly evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at national, state and local government levels. Conflicts arising from overlap of functions and lack of cohesion between bodies with roles in food safety and consumer protection leading to over-regulation and undue delays. It is often difficult to have a unified or integrated food control system in this kind of set up because of the various historical and political reasons therefore the national food control strategy should clearly identify and assign roles to each agency to avoid duplication of efforts and to enable some measure of coherence amongst them.
Integrated food control systems are operated where there is the desire and political will to achieve effective collaboration and coordination between agencies across the farm-to-table continuum. An integrated National Food Control Agency should address the entire food chain and have the mandate to move resources to high priority areas and to address important sources of risk. The system should be structured such as to have several levels of operation as follows:. Level 1: Formulation of policy, risk assessment and management and development of standards and regulations.
This model calls for the establishment of an autonomous national food agency which is responsible for activities at levels 1 and 2 with existing multi-sectoral agencies retaining responsibility for level 3 and 4 activities. The advantages include:. Politically more acceptable as it does not disturb the day to day inspection and enforcement roles of other agencies. Separates risk assessment and risk management functions, hence objective consumer protection measures with resultant confidence among domestic consumers and credibility of foreign buyers;.
Promotes uniform application of control measures across the food value chain throughout the country;. The role of such an agency is to establish national food control goals, put into effect the strategic and operational activities necessary to achieve the goals. It should also revise and update the national food control strategy as needed; advise on policy matters including determination of priorities and use of resources; draft regulations, standards and codes of practice and promote their implementation; coordinate the activities of the various inspection agencies and monitor performance; develop consumer education and community outreach programmes and promote implementation; support research and development and establish quality assurance schemes for industry and support their implementation.
The agency should consider the role of private analytical, inspection and certification services particularly for export trade. The National Codex Committee NCC was established in July by the approval of the Federal Executive Council and reconstituted in to incorporate all stakeholders to enable the committee function effectively towards providing relevant inputs and asserting the country's position at the Codex Alimentarius Commission in view of the implications for food safety and quality, protection of consumer health, fair practices in food trade as well as the enhancement of the national economy.
The Codex Contact Point is primarily a coordinator and focal point for Codex activities within the country, and is the link between the country and the Codex Alimentarius Commission and its Secretariat. It receives all the correspondence from the Codex Secretariat and Codex Committees and also invitation letters to attend Codex Committee and Commission meetings and coordinates all the necessary activities to facilitate the desired response.
The National Codex Committee has 4 four technical committees that deliberate on Codex texts and Circular Letters received from the Codex Secretariat requiring government comments at steps 3 and 6 of the 8-step standard setting procedure of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The technical committees meet to synthesize the national position and prepare the country delegation that would attend Codex Committee and Commission meetings. The recommended country positions are endorsed by the National Codex Committee and forwarded by the Codex Contact Point to the Codex Secretariat, respective Codex Committees and the Codex Commission as the case may be.
The National Codex Committee also provides a technical forum for:. Articulating national guidelines for protecting the health of the consumers and ensuring fair practices in the trade of food. Promoting co-ordination of all food standards work undertaken by national, international governmental and non-governmental organizations. Determining priorities and initiating draft standards with the aid of the appropriate organizations.
Initiating review of published standards, after appropriate survey in the light of current developments. Discussing issues relating to Codex and other regional standards on composition, safety, labeling, analysis and marketing of foods. Initiating scientific and technical data, generating research or collaborative studies, collating and processing data to enhance and enrich national, Codex and regional standards and all aspects of food regulations and marketing. The technical committees are responsible for work on the assigned Codex Committees as shown below:.
NAFDAC employs a structured and systematic procedure for product registration at the end of which the product is assigned a NAFDAC Registration Number which is an attestation to the safety, quality and appropriateness for its intended use. The registration process involves:. The permit to import samples for registration purposes is issued if documentation is satisfactory. Labeling: Labels should be informative, clear and accurate; indicate the name of product; name and address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor, importer, exporter, or vendor; make provision for NAFDAC Registration Number; batch number, manufacturing date and expiry or best before date; net content, ingredients list in metric weight in case of solids, semi solids and aerosols and metric volume in case of liquids.
Inspection: Good Manufacturing Practice GMP inspection of the production facility is carried out prior to registration of the product. Product Approval Committee Meetings: A three 3 tier product approval meeting is held to consider the documentation, laboratory reports, GMP inspection reports, product labels etc.
NAFDAC encourages sectoral groups, small and medium scale entrepreneurs etc to form umbrella associations e. These organizations are encouraged to self regulate their practices and can easily arrange for consultative meetings with the Agency where their views and concerns are addressed and taken into account when making regulatory decisions that concern them.
Such an arrangement also enables NAFDAC to organize targeted and focused capacity building training programmes for the various groups. Consultative meetings could also be at the instance of the Agency to give information and enlighten the public on NAFDAC requirements, discuss perceived regulatory challenges, inform on international best practices and regulatory trends etc.
The Agency organizes public enlightenment campaigns on topical and emerging issues using the electronic media, print media and physical presence at campaigns held at grassroots levels where the rural dwellers are invited with the cooperation and involvement of their local chiefs to inform and educate the populace. Some of the programmes are phone-in programmes where the public has the opportunity to ask questions and be further enlightened.
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The Agency also uses television advertisements and radio jingles to inform and educate the public. NAFDAC organizes international, national and in-house capacity building training programmes consistently for staff, the industry and the general public. The winners are celebrated in a NAFDAC organized national event where they receive awards and gifts for their schools and themselves. In addition to inculcating food safety and hygienic practices at an early age, the idea of the Consumer Safety Club also includes reaching out to the household or family level with food safety news and practices through the kids..
The challenges of regulatory control of food borne toxicants range from variations in the quality of raw materials supplied to the food processors because in many cases they are sourced separately and pooled together ; having many food handlers and middlemen with the risk of practices that expose the food to contamination; inadequate infrastructure and laboratory capacity and expertise; insufficient number of regulatory officers, inadequate co-ordination of food safety activities along the value chain to insufficient knowledge by food handlers. Problems sometimes occur due to poor post harvest handling; inadequate storage facilities and cold stores or conditioned warehouses; inadequate infrastructure such as transport facilities; good road networks, absence or shortage of electricity supply and clean water.
Certain unwholesome practices such as improper use of agrochemicals by traders of food commodities e.
Poor handling and storage of products such as melon seeds, groundnuts, rice etc lead to fungal growth and mycotoxin production with levels that exceed the acceptable limits. Street vended foods are an important component of the food supply chain but unfortunately such foods are generally prepared in unhygienic conditions with poor food handling, unhygienic surroundings and limited water supply. These conditions expose the food to microbiological contamination and could be a source of illness for the consumer. All these challenges could be addressed through public enlightenment, better coordination of roles along the food value and food supply chain, capacity building, improved infrastructure, training from the farm to the processing or preparation levels, adequately equipping the producers and regulators to perform their functions better through training and retraining in addition to providing the necessary working tools.
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