The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization

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Mexicans differ in opinion about the meaning of the word. Some would use it for a person who dresses in a tacky or tasteless manner, some use it to refer to the natives, some to the poor classes, and other for people with less education or culture and other ideology. The term fresa is in some terms the opposite of naco, and it is not always derogatory and means always some relative high economic status of the person termed in that way. Traditionally, people with more European looks and belonging to the middle or high classes are called fresas.

Dancing and singing are commonly part of family gatherings, bringing the old and young together, no matter what kind of music is being played, like cumbia , salsa, merengue or the more Mexican banda. Dancing is a strong part of the culture. Mexicans in places like Guadalajara , Puebla , Monterrey , Mexico City , and most middle-sized cities, enjoy a great variety of options for leisure. Shopping centers are a favorite among families, since there has been an increasing number of new malls that cater to people of all ages and interests.

A large number of them, have multiplex cinemas, international and local restaurants, food courts, cafes, bars, bookstores and most of the international renowned clothing brands are found too. Mexicans are prone to travel within their own country, making short weekend trips to a neighbouring city or town. The standard of living in Mexico is higher than most of the other countries in Latin America attracting migrants in search for better opportunities. With the recent economic growth, many high-income families live in single houses, commonly found within a gated community, called "fraccionamiento".

The reason these places are the most popular among the middle and upper classes is that they offer a sense of security and provide social status. Poorer Mexicans, by contrast, live a harsh life, although they share the importance they grant to family, friends and cultural habits. Local news shows are modeled after American counterparts like the Eyewitness News and Action News formats. Mexico's national sports are charreria and bullfighting. Ancient Mexicans played a ball game which still exists in Northwest Mexico Sinaloa, the game is called Ulama , though it is not a popular sport any more.

Most Mexicans enjoy watching bullfights. Almost all large cities have bullrings. Mexico City has the largest bullring in the world, which seats 55, people. But the favorite sport remains football soccer while baseball is also popular especially in the northern states because of the American influence, and a number of Mexicans have become stars in the US Major Leagues. Professional wrestling is shown on shows like Lucha Libre. American football is practiced at the major universities like UNAM.

Basketball has also been gaining popularity, with a number of Mexican players having been drafted to play in the National Basketball Association. The culture of Guatemala reflects strong Mayan and Spanish influences and continues to be defined as a contrast between poor Mayan villagers in the rural highlands, and the urbanized and wealthy mestizos population who occupy the cities and surrounding agricultural plains. The cuisine of Guatemala reflects the multicultural nature of Guatemala, in that it involves food that differs in taste depending on the region.

Guatemala has 22 departments or divisions , each of which has very different food varieties. For example, Antigua Guatemala is well known for its candy which makes use of many local ingredients fruits, seeds and nuts along with honey, condensed milk and other traditional sweeteners. Antigua's candy is very popular when tourists visit the country for the first time and is a great choice in the search for new and interesting flavors. Many traditional foods are based on Maya cuisine and prominently feature corn, chiles and beans as key ingredients.

Various dishes may have the same name as a dish from a neighboring country, but may in fact be quite different for example the enchilada or quesadilla , which are nothing like their Mexican counterparts. The music of Guatemala is diverse. Guatemala's national instrument is the marimba , an idiophone from the family of the xylophones, which is played all over the country, even in the remotest corners. Towns also have wind and percussion bands -week processions, as well as on other occasions. The Garifuna people of Afro-Caribbean descent, who are spread thinly on the northeastern Caribbean coast , have their own distinct varieties of popular and folk music.

Cumbia , from the Colombian variety, is also very popular especially among the lower classes. Dozens of Rock bands have emerged in the last two decades, making rock music quite popular among young people.

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Guatemala also has an almost five-century-old tradition of art music, spanning from the first liturgical chant and polyphony introduced in to contemporary art music. Much of the music composed in Guatemala from the 16th century to the 19th century has only recently been unearthed by scholars and is being revived by performers. Guatemalan literature is famous around the world whether in the indigenous languages present in the country or in Spanish.

Though there was likely literature in Guatemala before the arrival of the Spanish, all the texts that exist today were written after their arrival. It is a compendium of Mayan stories and legends, aimed to preserve Mayan traditions. Due to its combination of historical, mythical, and religious elements, it has been called the Mayan Bible.

It is a vital document for understanding the culture of pre-Columbian America. It is thought to date from the 15th century and narrates the mythical and dynastic origins of the Kek'chi' people and their relationships with neighboring peoples. The 16th century saw the first native-born Guatemalan writers that wrote in Spanish. He was forced into exile by Carlos III.

He traveled to Mexico and later to Italy, where he did. He originally wrote his Rusticatio Mexicana and his poems praising the bishop Figueredo y Victoria in Latin. The Maya people are known for their brightly colored yarn-based textiles, which are woven into capes, shirts, blouses, huipiles and dresses. Each village has its own distinctive pattern, making it possible to distinguish a person's home town on sight.

Women's clothing consists of a shirt and a long skirt. Roman Catholicism combined with the indigenous Maya religion is the unique syncretic religion which prevailed throughout the country and still does in the rural regions. Beginning from negligible roots prior to , however, Protestant Pentecostalism has grown to become the predominant religion of Guatemala City and other urban centers and down to mid-sized towns.

Always depicted in black, he wears a black hat and sits on a chair, often with a cigar placed in his mouth and a gun in his hand, with offerings of tobacco, alcohol and Coca-Cola at his feet. The locals know him as San Simon of Guatemala. Nicaraguan culture has several distinct strands. The Pacific coast has strong folklore, music and religious traditions, deeply influenced by European culture but enriched with Amerindian sounds and flavors. The Pacific coast of the country was colonized by Spain and has a similar culture to other Spanish-speaking Latin American countries.

The Caribbean coast of the country, on the other hand, was once a British protectorate. English is still predominant in this region and spoken domestically along with Spanish and indigenous languages. Its culture is similar to that of Caribbean nations that were or are British possessions, such as Jamaica , Belize , The Cayman Islands , etc. Nicaraguan music is a mixture of indigenous and European, especially Spanish and to a lesser extent German, influences.

The latter was a result of the German migration to the central-north regions of Las Segovias where Germans settled and brought with them polka music which influenced and evolved into Nicaraguan mazurka, polka and waltz. The Germans that migrated to Nicaragua are speculated to have been from the regions of Germany which were annexed to present-day Poland following the Second World War; hence the genres of mazurka, polka in addition to the waltz.

One of the more famous composers of classical music and Nicaraguan waltz was Jose de la Cruz Mena who was actually not from the northern regions of Nicaragua but rather from the city of Leon in Nicaragua. More nationally identified, however, are musical instruments such as the marimba which is also common across Central America. The marimba of Nicaragua is uniquely played by a sitting performer holding the instrument on his knees.

It is usually accompanied by a bass fiddle , guitar and guitarrilla a small guitar like a mandolin. This music is played at social functions as a sort of background music. The marimba is made with hardwood plates, placed over bamboo or metal tubes of varying lengths. It is played with two or four hammers. The Caribbean coast of Nicaragua is known for a lively, sensual form of dance music called Palo de Mayo. It is especially loud and celebrated during the Palo de Mayo festival in May The Garifuna community exists in Nicaragua and is known for its popular music called Punta.


Literature of Nicaragua can be traced to pre-Columbian times with the myths and oral literature that formed the cosmogonic view of the world that indigenous people had. Some of these stories are still known in Nicaragua. Like many Latin American countries, the Spanish conquerors have had the most effect on both the culture and the literature. It is regarded as one of Latin America's most distinctive colonial-era expressions and as Nicaragua's signature folkloric masterpiece combining music, dance and theater.

As such, many of the traditions date back to Incan traditions. During the independization of the Americas many countries including Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador and Panama formed what was known as Gran Colombia , a federal republic that later dissolved, however, the people in these countries believe each other to be their brothers and sisters and as such share many traditions and festivals. Peru and Bolivia were also one single country until Bolivia declared its independence, nevertheless, both nations are close neighbors that have somewhat similar cultures.

Bolivia and Peru both still have significant Native American populations primarily Quechua and Aymara which mixed Spanish cultural elements with their ancestors' traditions. The Spanish-speaking population mainly follows the Western customs. Important archaeological ruins, gold and silver ornaments, stone monuments, ceramics, and weavings remain from several important pre-Columbian cultures.

The majority of the Ecuadorian population is mestizo, a mixture of both European and Amerindian ancestry, and much like their ancestry, the national culture is also a blend of these two sources, along with influences from slaves from Africa in the coastal region. Peruvian culture is primarily rooted in Amerindian and Spanish traditions, [32] though it has also been influenced by various African, Asian, and European ethnic groups. Peruvian artistic traditions date back to the elaborate pottery, textiles, jewelry, and sculpture of Pre-Inca cultures. The Incas maintained these crafts and made architectural achievements including the construction of Machu Picchu.

Baroque art dominated in colonial times, though it was modified by native traditions. Peruvian literature has its roots in the oral traditions of pre-Columbian civilizations. Spaniards introduced writing in the 16th century, and colonial literary expression included chronicles and religious literature.

After independence, Costumbrism and Romanticism became the most common literary genres, as exemplified in the works of Ricardo Palma. Peruvian cuisine is a blend of Amerindian and Spanish food with strong influences from African, Arab, Italian, Chinese, and Japanese cooking.

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Because of the variety of climates within Peru, a wide range of plants and animals are available for cooking. Peruvian music has Andean, Spanish and African roots. The culture of Colombia lies at the crossroads of Latin America. Thanks partly to geography, Colombian culture has been heavily fragmented into five major cultural regions. Rural to urban migration and globalization have changed how many Colombians live and express themselves as large cities become melting pots of people many of whom are refugees from the various provinces.

Many aspects of Colombian culture can be traced back to the culture of Spain of the 16th century and its collision with Colombia's native civilizations see: Muisca , Tayrona. The Spanish brought Catholicism , African slaves , the feudal encomienda system, and a caste system that favored European-born whites. After independence from Spain, the criollos struggled to establish a pluralistic political system between conservative and liberal ideals. Ethno-racial groups maintained their ancestral heritage culture: whites tried to keep themselves, despite the growing number of illegitimate children of mixed African or indigenous ancestry.

These people were labeled with any number of descriptive names, derived from the casta system, such as mulato and moreno. Blacks and indigenous people of Colombia also mixed to form zambos creating a new ethno-racial group in society. This mix also created a fusion of cultures. Carnivals for example became an opportunity for all classes and colors to congregate without prejudice.

The introduction of the bill of rights of men and the abolishment of slavery eased the segregationist tensions between the races, but the dominance of the whites prevailed and prevails to some extent to this day. The industrial revolution arrived relatively late at the beginning of the 20th century with the establishment of the Republic of Colombia. Colombians had a period of almost 50 years of relative peace [ citation needed ] interrupted only by a short armed conflict with Peru over the town of Leticia in Venezuelan culture has been shaped by indigenous , African and especially European Spanish.

Before this period, indigenous culture was expressed in art petroglyphs , crafts , architecture shabonos , and social organization. Aboriginal culture was subsequently assimilated by Spaniards; over the years, the hybrid culture had diversified by region. At present the Indian influence is limited to a few words of vocabulary and gastronomy. The African influence in the same way, in addition to musical instruments like the drum. The Spanish influence was more important and in particular came from the regions of Andalusia and Extremadura, places of origin of most settlers in the Caribbean during the colonial era.

As an example of this can include buildings, part of the music, the Catholic religion and language. Spanish influences are evident bullfights and certain features of the cuisine. Venezuela also enriched by other streams of Indian and European origin in the 19th century, especially France. In the last stage of the great cities and regions entered the U. For example: From the United States comes the influence of the taste of baseball and modern architectural structures.

Venezuelan art is gaining prominence. Modernism took over in the 20th century. They created a new plastic language. In more recent times, Venezuela produced a new diverse generation of innovating painters. Venezuelan literature originated soon after the Spanish conquest of the mostly pre-literate indigenous societies; it was dominated by Spanish influences. Baseball and football are Venezuela's most popular sports, and the Venezuela national football team , is passionately followed.

In the 19th century, Brazilian theatre began with romanticism along with a fervor for political independence. They were centers of industrial and economic development. Like this company, it was in the late s when the first stable theatre companies formed around well-known actors. These actors were able to practice authentic Brazilian gestures gradually freed from Portuguese influence. Except for some political criticism in the low comedies, the dramas of this period were not popular.

Occasionally the question of dependence on Europe or North America was raised. They were an attempt to deal with political themes, nationalism, and anti-imperialism. His theatre was inspired by Meyerhold's and Brecht's theories, with a political sarcasm like Mayakovsky. With this production, Brazilian theatre moved into the modem period. Paradoxically, this led to a second renewal which engaged popular forms and sentiments; a renewal that was decidedly nationalistic with social and even communist leanings. During this time, the Stanislavsky system of acting was most popular and widely used.

The next phase was from to the signing of the Institutional Act Number Five in It marked the end of freedom and democracy. These ten years were the most productive of the century. During this decade a generation accepted theatre as an activity with social responsibility. At its height, this phase of Brazilian theatre was characterized by an affirmation of national values. Actors and directors became political activists who risked their jobs and lives daily. Through this growth of Latin America politically and the influence of European theatre, an identity of what is theatre in Latin America stemmed out of it.

Modern painting in Brazil was born during Modern Art Week in Brazilian contemporary photography is one of the most creative in Latin America, growing in international prominence each year with exhibitions and publications. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The richness of Latin American culture is the product of many influences, including: Spanish and Portuguese culture , owing to the region's history of colonization, settlement and continued immigration by Spain and Portugal.

All the core elements of Latin American culture are of Iberian origin. Pre-Columbian cultures , whose importance is today particularly notable in countries such as Mexico, Guatemala, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Paraguay, and is central to indigenous communities such as the Quechua, Maya and Aymara.

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Mostly of immigration and indentured laborers who arrived from the coolie trade influenced the culture of Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Dominican Republic, Panama and Peru in areas such as food, art, and cultural trade. Influences are particularly strong in the dance, music, cuisine, and religion of Cuba, Brazil, Dominican Republic and coastal Colombia. Main article: Ethnic groups in Latin America. See also: Amerindian languages. Main article: Religion in Latin America. Further information: Folk Catholicism. Further information: Colombian folklore. Further information: Category:Brazilian folklore.

Further information: Category:Mexican folklore. Further information: Category:Peruvian folklore. See also: Cuento. Further information: Latin America—United Kingdom relations. Main article: Latin American art. See also: List of Latin American artists. Main article: Latin American literature.

See also: List of Latin American writers. Main article: Music of Latin America. Main article: Latin American cinema. Main articles: Latin dance and Latin pop. Main article: Latin American cuisine. Main article: Culture of Mexico. Further information: Central America. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. June Main article: Culture of Guatemala. Main article: cuisine of Guatemala. Main article: music of Guatemala. Main article: Guatemalan literature. Main article: Culture of Nicaragua.

Further information: Andean states. Main article: Culture of Peru. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. CHIN Chinese in the Business World The course is designed for students and working professionals who have no prior knowledge of Chinese, and are interested in conducting business in China.

The objective of this course is to build a solid foundation of basic Chinese in the business context, with a focus on speaking and listening. Topics in the course cover basic daily corporate interactions and business-related social exchanges such as meeting people, introducing companies, making inquiries and appointments, visiting companies, introducing products, initiating dining invitations, etc.

This course will also help you gain a better understanding of Chinese business culture, and assist you in overcoming the problems in cross-cultural communication from a comparative perspective. Students will learn the rudiments of both spoken and written Chinese Mandarin in cultural context. The course exposes students to aspects of traditional Chinese culture via experiential learning; it integrates language learning with cultural experiences which may include the practice of Chinese calligraphy, traditional Chinese painting and Kungfu, singing Peking opera, learning the traditional Chinese game of Go and immersive excursions to Chicago's Chinatown.

Students will advance their elementary knowledge of modern spoken and written Mandarin Chinese through building vocabulary and enhancing communication in cultural context. The course exposes students to aspects of modern Chinese culture, by integrating language learning with the study of contemporary cultural forms. These may include Chinese reality TV shows, film, pop music, popular literature, and other forms of mass media. Prerequisite: CHIN or permission of instructor. Basic Spoken Chinese is a beginning-level course in oral proficiency that employs a new method designed to have students quickly speaking and comprehending Mandarin Chinese.

Learning the Chinese writing system is not required in this course. This course is designed for students who seek to advance rapidly in spoken Chinese. It is designed to prepare students for study abroad or to enhance their interest in China. Under the Forester Fundamental Curriculum, this course meets the Humanities and Speaking requirements. CHIN Intermediate Chinese This course will continue the fundamentals of Chinese conversation begun in the first-year series, Chinese and , and continue work on reading and writing the language.

Extensive oral practice and conversation exercises are stressed. Classes will be supplemented with laboratory exercises and written work. Prerequisite: CHIN or equivalent. It focuses on further developments of the four language skills to support sustained oral and written performance at the intermediate level to prepare students for third year Chinese study. The focus will be on oral expression with expanding vocabulary, enhancing understanding of grammar, and introducing more complex structures and texts. This course is an introduction to traditional East Asian literature with the primary focus on China, Japan and Korea.

It will concentrate on several themes, topics, authors and representative works of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Korean literature; emphasis on critical reading. This course will provide the students an opportunity to enjoy the most well known poems, novels and short stories produced by the prominent authors of the genres. We will look at the specific political, social, economic, technological and aesthetic factors that have influenced the shape and character of Chinese cinema over the last century.

As this course serves as a general introduction to Chinese film, it is intended for students who have little or no knowledge of China. All films screened for the course have English subtitles, so no knowledge of the Chinese language is required. CHIN Intro to Chinese Literature in Engl Introduction to Chinese Literature in English This course will introduce students to Chinese literature through representative works of philosophy, poetry, folklore and modern short stories.

The goal of this course is twofold: to grant students glimpses into the rich repertoire of Chinese literature and hence insights into the fundamental humanistic traditions of China; and to develop a set of skills of literary analysis. No knowledge of Chinese language or prior coursework on Chinese culture is required. CHIN Intro to Chinese Culture in English This course will explore elements of Contemporary Chinese culture and themes related to living, studying or working in China, as seen in films, videos, internet sources, and selected fiction and non-fiction texts.

Topics covered include China's diverse geography, peoples and cuisine, doing business in China, the societal role of Chinese medicine, festivals and weddings, interpreting folk and contemporary art forms, current trends and themes in popular culture. This course will be taught in English. The focus will be on oral and written expression in cultural context, expanding vocabulary and enhancing understanding of Chinese grammar.

Chinese idiomatic expressions and various aspects of Chinese culture will also be explored throughout the course. The goal of this course is to develop students' Chinese language skills in a communicative political and business context while being aware of Chinese socio-cultural issues. It includes a concurrent emphasis on business terminology, conducting business negotiations, reading newspapers, magazines, and other business-related documents, discussing news and current events, and understanding economic trends and situations in modern China.

Particularly recommended for students who are thinking of careers in economics, business, politics, and international relations. French Courses. FREN Beginning French I French is designed to develop the student's ability to aurally comprehend, speak, read, and write basic controlled patterns of the French language. FREN Beginning French II French is a continuation of and culminates in readings, class discussions, and free composition to provide facility with the spoken and written language and insight into its structure.

Prerequisite for French placement recommendation or a grade of C or better in French FREN Interm French: Cultural Emphasis A course designed to afford the student a systematic review of all the basic elements of French grammar, implemented with culture-based readings and exercises, with a view to preparing the student for more sophisticated courses in language, literature, and culture.

Classroom work supplemented by laboratory exercises. Prerequisite: French , or placement exam recommendation. This course presents advanced French grammar topics and enhances vocabulary acquisition with emphasis on effective communication. In addition to discussing the socio-historical context of several francophone societies, students begin critical reading and thematic oral discussion of short works of fiction in French for increased cultural understanding.

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Contextualized writing assignments also prepare students for success in more advanced coursework and study abroad. Prerequisite: French or placement recommendation. This course, taught in English with an option for French majors to complete reading and writing in French , will examine French literary works, both historical and contemporary, through a variety of cinematic examples taken from French films. This course will compare the expression of theme, character, and plot structure in written literature plays and narratives and in corresponding cinematic adaptations.

The course will also address whether the author's literary style is reflected in or displaced by the cinematic style of French 'auteurs' film directors studied. The question of translation across genres literature to film , across language and culture example of American remakes , and across history a historical period depicted in a modern cinematic era will also be discussed. This course, taught in English, examines contemporary French cultural perceptions through a variety of cinematic examples taken from French films.

Cultural analysis will include discussions of French history, literature, politics, geography, and music. In addition, the topic of 'remaking culture' through film is addressed, as the current wave of cinematic remakes invites cross-cultural comparisons between the United States and France. The course will examine major French directors and their cinematic portrayals of the French, as well as documentaries and filmed interviews, and will analyze the 'authenticity' of the portrait they produce of French society.

Prerequisite: FREN or equivalent. Writing assignments will focus on clarity of structure, useful transitions, verbal agreement and sequencing of events. Particular attention will be given to making appropriate word choices within a variety of cultural and linguistic contexts, and enhancing vocabulary for successful general academic writing. Students will also have the opportunity to acquire terminology used in a particular area of career or personal interest e. Course recommended in preparation for level coursework.

Under the Forester Fundamental Curriculum, this course meets the Humanities and Writing requirements.

The Handbook of Language and Globalization, Nikolas Coupland

FREN Conversation and Composition Oral and written work for students who have already reached an intermediate level of competency in oral and written expression. This course will deal with familiar and formal French. Vocabulary and idioms are taught in a conversational context. Students familiarize themselves with the expressive gestures used by the French and the colloquial expressions that accompany them.

Prerequisite: FREN or equivalent or permission of instructor. It will mainly offer an investigation of Muslim immigration and integration in the post period. Along the way, we will also consider the broader context of immigration i. This course represents a postcolonial approach to the history of France, at the nexus of colonial, immigration, and urban histories. These histories will be studied with a focus on the social, economic, political, and cultural stakes raised by immigration, and the course will consider how some in France have reacted against certain groups of immigrants as antithetical to "Frenchness".

The course literature, written by various francophone authors, will include narratives, poems, letters, dramatic scenes, and news articles. Translation of these varied literary genres will hone the student's use of grammar and syntax, as well as understanding of stylistic and literary devices in cultural context. Creative exercises will be linked to literary and stylistic elements of texts studied, and framed in one or more cultural contexts.

Original writing will also be inspired by the use of visual media e. The students' oral expression in French will be enhanced by analytic discussion of the readings and visuals, short interpretation exercises the oral equivalent of translation , presentation and discussion of original creative material. An original text will be chosen for submission to Collage literary magazine.

This course explores the elements of effective communication of news in French, and will include the study of traditional media articles, reviews, reports, and interviews , as well as newer media blogs, vlogs, etc. Students learn to distinguish elements of journalistic style and perspective by studying a variety of news and fake news sources, and learn to convey information to a particular audience in French through structured, oral and written presentation of information and argument. Additionally, students engage in the practice of translating news reports and reviews from various disciplines including the sciences, business, the arts, and international politics.

Specific translation strategies help students to advance their proficiency in understanding written and spoken French while developing specialized vocabulary and additional knowledge of francophone cultural contexts. Students enhance their skills at oral communication in French through discussion, interviewing, and presentation of researched information. Prerequisite: FREN or equivalent or appropriate placement exam result. Cross-listed as: JOUR Students familiarize themselves with vocabulary used in newspaper and magazine articles on current topics of interest politics, the economy, etc.

The arts of interpreting and dubbing or subtitling will also be explored. Prerequisite: French or equivalent. In addition to practical exercises in business creation, job interviewing and advertising in French, students gain a basic grasp of political and economic issues in contemporary France, giving students the background to discuss French news and current events intelligently. Particularly recommended for students thinking of careers in business, economics, politics or international relations.

It is an introduction to the concepts of literary criticism and explication de texte and will familiarize the student with the vocabulary of literary analysis. The texts are chosen from the three major literary genres: poetry, prose, and drama.

All lectures, discussions, and assignments are in French. Coursework will include listening to and viewing performances, and reading historical and critical texts on popular song. Examples will be drawn from French, Canadian and Francophone African song repertoires of various eras, and may also include music from other French-speaking territories.

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Students will learn terminology in French used to describe and analyze music. No previous musical experience necessary. Cross-listed as: MUSC FREN Contemporary France This course will address current subjects of debate in France and study how France has changed politically and socially since its major period of decolonization in the ss. Particular attention will be given to France's efforts to integrate immigrants, and specific issues related to French residents of Muslim heritage.

Oral and written competence will be enhanced by discussion, debate, presentation, and writing short papers in French. Topics will vary, and may include discussion of immigration, women's issues, political conflict, changing social and national identity. The course will draw from film, literature, critical materials and contemporary news sources. FREN Cinema Francais This interdisciplinary course provides an overview of French cinematic history, with an emphasis on how French films and movements represent various social and political concerns of their time period.

Film will be studied as an art form and cultural text to be interpreted, and films by major directors will illustrate key cinematic concepts and themes. Readings will address the socio-political context, from French film beginnings to the complexity of post-colonial French identity and cultural globalization depicted in contemporary French and Francophone films. This course is discussion-based,with occasional lectures, is taught in French, and will acquaint students with cinematic terms used to interpret the genre. Cross-listed as: CINE Through analysis of chosen texts and films, students develop critical thinking on topics related to racial difference, social and gender roles, ecological issues and scientific ethics.

The course aims to enhance students' linguistic proficiency and cultural understanding, as well as hone analytical skills. Prerequisite: FREN or equivalent, or permission of instructor. Students who wish to take this course for senior seminar credit for the French major will complete an extra essay on the mid-term, a longer presentation and final research project, in consultation with the instructor. FREN Art of Storytelling In this course, students will engage in the critical examination of story-telling, or the craft of constructing narrative within a cultural context.

Students will analyze and discuss course texts and understand elements of story construction through the study of selected francophone narratives, principally prose forms such as the novel, short story, dialogue and essay, but also select examples from film, narrative poetry and song. Students will also translate and creatively transform existing narratives in order to examine issues of style and to create and present an original story to the class, based on models studied during the semester.

The essentials of French versification are stressed, as well as the distinctive character of the various forms within the genre. Not open to students who have taken FREN Prerequisite: One level course in French. FREN Senior Thesis The thesis allows students to do in-depth research and to develop an original thesis on a topic in French literature, literatures of the French-speaking world, French civilization, or linguistics. Offered as required. Italian Courses. In this intensive three-week course, we will strive to maximize your oral proficiency using a 'full immersion' approach, including drills of model sentences and word patterns.

We will focus on the acquisition of basic verbal communication skills i. Taught only in the summer. Most of the fundamental structures are covered in Japanese and , together with writing practice in the hiragana and the katakana syllabaries. Lab work is an integral part of the sequence. Most of the fundamental structures are covered in Japanese and , together with writing practice in the hiragana and the katakana syllabaries and some basic kanji.

Prerequisite: Japanese or equivalent. This course continues the fundamentals of Japanese conversation begun in the first-year series, Japanese and , and continues work on reading and writing the language. Classes are supplemented with audio materials and exercises and daily written work using hiragana, katakana, and kanji. This course also familiarizes students with Japanese society, customs, and culture. Students will make a researched presentation concerning a specific topic of interest related to Japanese culture, customs, society, politics, or the economy.

Prerequisite: Japanese or consent of instructor. This course continues the fundamentals of Japanese language began in Japanese , , and Extensive practice in oral expression and increasingly stronger emphasis on reading and writing using hiragana, katakana, and kanji are stressed. Reading and speaking are supplemented with an extensive use of audio materials and exercises. There are daily assignments and occasional presentations. This course also familiarizes students with Japanese society, customs and culture. Prerequisite: Japanese or consent of the instructor. LING Descriptive Linguistics Principles and techniques of descriptive linguistics as seen through different schools of linguistics, from structuralism to modern transformational and stratificational theories.

This introductory course is designed to develop the student's ability to comprehend, speak, read, and write basic controlled patterns of the Portuguese language. Brazilian music is used as an important tool to reinforce aural and written language acquisition as well as to provide specific cultural context through the examination of historical, social, and political elements of the music.

The course draws from comparative linguistics to enhance student learning by making explicit connections between Portuguese and other Romance languages French, Spanish. LING Linguistics and Literature A consideration of the major linguistic theories and their implications and relations to literary criticism. Special emphasis on applications to literary criticism of transformational grammar, stratificational grammar, and tagmemics.

Discussion and critical appraisal of the value of such approaches to literary analysis. Cross-listed as: LCTR Students will investigate and discuss key issues associated with the area's central elements, including second-language acquisition, second-language research methods, second-language pedagogy, second-language assessment.

Those considering teaching in the future can reflect on how to apply both the emerging and the ongoing developments, research, and trends in the field to classroom instruction. Under the Forester Fundamental Curriculum, this course meets the Humanities and Technology requirements.

LCTR Collage Magazine LCTR is a practicum designed to provide an opportunity for students with some knowledge of any language other than English to learn about the design and production of Collage Magazine, while earning course credit. Collage Magazine represents cultural and linguistic diversity within the Lake Forest College community. The 0. May be repeated; up to one full credit may be counted toward Lake Forest College graduation.

LCTR Linguistics and Literature A consideration of the major linguistic theories and their implications and relations to literary criticism.

The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization
The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization
The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization
The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization
The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization
The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization
The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization
The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization
The Politics of Language in the Spanish-Speaking World: From Colonization to Globalization

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